Breast Reconstruction Surgery
It is estimated that 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime. The loss of a breast can be psychologically devastating. Breast reconstruction surgery can dramatically restore a woman’s self-confidence, quality of life and sense of femininity. While a reconstructed breast can never truly recreate the breast that nature provided, recent surgical advances and techniques permit reconstructions with excellent shape and form.
The first step is to contact our office at 520-297-3300 to schedule a consultation with either Dr. Richard Hess or Dr. Sven Sandeen. Please allow an hour for your initial visit. At that time we will discuss your individual goals and evaluate your individual circumstances. We will discuss the options available and discuss our expectation for your outcome as well as the associated surgical risks and benefits.
What is Breast Reconstruction Surgery?
Enhancing your appearance with breast reconstruction Surgery
Breast reconstruction surgery is a physically and emotionally rewarding procedure for a woman who has lost a breast due to cancer or other condition. The creation of a new breast can dramatically improve your self-image, self-confidence and quality of life. Although surgery can give you a relatively natural-looking breast, a reconstructed breast will never look or feel exactly the same as the breast that was removed.
Is it right for me?
Breast reconstruction surgery is a highly individualized procedure. You should do it for yourself, not to fulfill someone else’s desires or to try to fit any sort of ideal image. Breast reconstruction surgery is a good option for you if:
- You are able to cope well with your diagnosis and treatment
- You do not have additional medical conditions or other illnesses that may impair healing
- You have a positive outlook and realistic goals for restoring your breast and body image
Breast reconstruction surgery typically involves several procedures performed in multiple stages. It can:
- Begin at the same time as mastectomy (immediate), or
- Be delayed until you heal from mastectomy and recover from any additional cancer treatments
It’s important that you feel ready for the emotional adjustment involved in breast reconstruction surgery. It may take some time to accept the results of breast reconstruction surgery.
What to expect during your consultation
The success and safety of your breast reconstruction procedure depends very much on your complete candidness during your consultation. You’ll be asked a number of questions about your health, desires and lifestyle.
Be prepared to discuss:
- Why you want the surgery, your expectations and desired outcome
- Medical conditions, drug allergies and medical treatments
- Use of current medications, vitamins, herbal supplements, alcohol, tobacco and drugs
- Previous surgeries
- The options available in breast reconstruction surgery
- The likely outcomes of breast reconstruction and any risks or potential complications
- The course of treatment recommended by Dr. Hess or Dr. Sandeen including procedures to achieve breast symmetry
We will also:
- Evaluate your general health status and any pre-existing health conditions or risk factors
- Examine your breasts, and take detailed measurements of their size and shape, skin quality, and placement of nipples and areolae
- Possibly take photographs for your medical record
- Discuss your options and recommend a course of treatment
- Discuss likely outcomes of breast reconstruction and any risks or potential complications
Although breast reconstruction surgery can rebuild your breast, the results are highly variable:
- A reconstructed breast will not have the same sensation and feel as the breast it replaces.
- Visible incision lines will always be present on the breast, whether from reconstruction or mastectomy.
- Certain surgical techniques will leave incision lines at the donor site, commonly located in less exposed areas of the body such as the back, abdomen or buttocks.
A note about symmetry: If only one breast is affected, it alone may be reconstructed. In addition, a breast lift, breast reduction or breast augmentation may be recommended for the opposite breast to improve symmetry of the size and position of both breasts.
Important facts about the safety and risks of breast reconstruction
The decision to have breast reconstruction surgery is extremely personal. You’ll have to decide if the benefits will achieve your goals and if the risks and potential complications are acceptable.
Dr. Hess, Dr. Sandeen and our staff will explain in detail the risks associated with surgery. You will be asked to sign consent forms to ensure that you fully understand the procedures you will undergo and any risks or potential complications.
The possible risks of breast reconstruction surgery include, but are not limited to, bleeding, infection, poor healing of incisions, and anesthesia risks. You should also know that:
- Flap surgery includes the risk of partial or complete loss of the flap and a loss of sensation at both the donor and reconstruction site.
- The use of implants carries the risk of breast firmness (capsular contracture) and implant rupture.
Breast implants do not impair breast health. Careful review of scientific research conducted by independent groups such as the Institute of Medicine has found no proven link between breast implants and autoimmune or other systemic diseases. Visit www.breastimplantsafety.org for current information.
What reconstruction techniques are available?
Flap techniques reposition a woman’s own muscle, fat and skin to create or cover the breast mound.
Sometimes a mastectomy or radiation therapy will leave insufficient tissue on the chest wall to cover and support a breast implant. The use of a breast implant for reconstruction almost always requires either a flap technique or tissue expansion.
A TRAM flap uses donor muscle, fat and skin from a woman’s abdomen to reconstruct the breast. The flap may either remain attached to the original blood supply and be tunneled up through the chest wall, or be completely detached, and formed into a breast mound.
Alternatively, your surgeon may choose the DIEP or SGAP flap techniques which do not use muscle but transport tissue to the chest from the abdomen or buttock.
A latissimus dorsi flap uses muscle, fat and skin from the back tunneled to the mastectomy site and remains attached to its donor site, leaving blood supply intact.
Occasionally, the flap can reconstruct a complete breast mound, but often provides the muscle and tissue necessary to cover and support a breast implant.
Tissue expansion stretches healthy skin to provide coverage for a breast implant.
Reconstruction with tissue expansion is most commonly performed in Tucson, Arizona and allows an easier recovery than flap procedures, but it is a more lengthy reconstruction process.
It requires many office visits over 4-6 months after placement of the expander to slowly fill the device through an internal valve to expand the skin.
A second surgical procedure will be needed to replace the expander if it is not designed to serve as a permanent implant.
Step 4 – Surgical placement of a breast implant creates a breast mound.
A breast implant can be an addition or alternative to flap techniques. Saline and silicone implants are available for reconstruction.
Dr. Hess or Dr. Sandeen will help you decide what is best for you. Reconstruction with an implant alone usually requires tissue expansion.
Grafting and other specialized techniques create a nipple and areola.
Breast reconstruction surgery is completed through a variety of techniques that reconstruct the nipple and areola.
Where will my surgery be performed?
Immediate breast reconstruction surgery (performed at the time of mastectomy) is most often performed at Northwest Medical Center or Oro Valley Hospital under general anesthesia. Delayed breast reconstruction may be performed in a hospital setting possibly involving an overnight stay or at Northwest Tucson Surgery Center on an outpatient basis.
The decision will be based on the requirements of your specific procedure and in consideration of your preferences and your doctor’s best judgment. Most procedures are performed under general anesthesia by a board certified Anesthesiologist.
Preparing for surgery
Prior to surgery, you may be asked to:
- Get lab testing or a medical evaluation
- Take certain medications or adjust your current medications
- Stop smoking well in advance of surgery
- Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they may increase bleeding
Special instructions will cover:
- What to do on the day of surgery
- The use of anesthesia during your breast reconstruction
- Post-operative care and follow-up
- Breast implant registry documents (when necessary)
Following your surgery for flap techniques and/or the insertion of an implant, gauze or bandages will be applied to your incisions.
An elastic bandage or support bra will minimize swelling and support the reconstructed breast. A small, thin tube may be temporarily placed under the skin to drain any excess blood or fluid.
If your breast reconstruction surgery is performed on an outpatient basis, be sure to arrange for someone to drive you to and from surgery and to stay with you for at least the first night following surgery.
If you experience shortness of breath, chest pains, or unusual heart beats, seek medical attention immediately. Should any of these complications occur, you may require hospitalization and additional treatment.
Following your physician’s instructions is key to the success of your surgery. It is important that the surgical incisions are not subjected to excessive force, abrasion, or motion during the time of healing. Your doctor will give you specific instructions on how to care for yourself.
Results and outlook
Healing will continue for several weeks as swelling decreases and breast shape and position improve. Continue to follow your plastic surgeon’s instructions and attend follow-up visits as scheduled.
The final results of breast reconstruction surgery following mastectomy can help lessen the physical and emotional impact of mastectomy. The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science. Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee. In some situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with a single surgical procedure and another surgery may be necessary.
Over time, some breast sensation may return, and scar lines will improve, although they’ll never disappear completely.
There are trade-offs, but most women feel these are small compared to the large improvement in their quality of life and the ability to look and feel whole.
Careful monitoring of breast health through self-exam, mammography and other diagnostic techniques is essential to your long-term health.
How much will breast reconstruction surgery cost?
Cost is always a consideration in surgery. Breast reconstruction surgery after breast cancer is considered a reconstructive procedure and should be covered by health insurance. However, insurance coverage varies. Please review your individual policy for specific information.
Cost may include:
- Surgeon’s fee
- Hospital or surgical facility costs
- Anesthesia fees
- Prescriptions for medication
- Post-surgery garments, and
- Medical tests and x-rays
Your satisfaction involves more than a fee
When choosing to have breast reconstruction, remember that the surgeon’s experience and your comfort with him or her are just as important as the final cost of the surgery.
Words to know
- Areola: Pigmented skin surrounding the nipple.
- Breast augmentation: Also known as augmentation mammaplasty; breast enlargement by surgery.
- Breast lift: Also known as mastopexy; surgery to lift the breasts.
- Breast reduction: Reduction of breast size and breast lift by surgery.
- Capsular contracture: A complication of breast implant surgery which occurs when scar tissue that normally forms around the implant tightens and squeezes the implant and becomes firm.
- DIEP flap: Deep Inferior Epigastric perforator flap which takes tissue from the abdomen.
- Donor site: An area of your body where the surgeon harvests skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct your breast – commonly located in less exposed areas of the body such as the back, abdomen or buttocks.
- Flap techniques: Surgical techniques used to reposition your own skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct or cover your breast.
- General anesthesia: Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness.
- Grafting: A surgical technique to recreate your nipple and areola.
- Hematoma: Blood pooling beneath the skin.
- Intravenous sedation: Sedatives administered by injection into a vein to help you relax.
- Latissimus dorsi flap technique: A surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin tunneled under the skin and tissue of a woman’s back to the reconstructed breast and remains attached to its donor site, leaving blood supply intact.
- Local anesthesia: A drug injected directly to the site of an incision during an operation to relieve pain.
- Mastectomy: The removal of the whole breast, typically to rid the body of cancer.
- SGAP flap: Superior Gluteal Artery perforator flap which takes tissue from the buttock.
- Tissue expansion: A surgical technique to stretch your own healthy tissue and create new skin to provide coverage for a breast implant.
- TRAM flap: Also known as transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap, a surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin from your own abdomen to reconstruct the breast.
- Transaxillary incision: An incision made in the underarm area.
Useful websites regarding Breast Reconstruction Surgery
We recently had the opportunity to support and participate in the 5th Annual Beat Cancer Boot Camp Challenge Event. This was held in March 16th at Brandi Fenton Memorial Park.